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Sigatoka Disease Complex of Banana in Brazil: Management Practices and Future Directions

| May 12, 2015

Abstract

Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world?s most important monocotyledonous crops, cultivated in over 100 tropical and subtropical countries. As the world’s most consumed fruit, it can represent a source of livelihood in countries of the African continent, where the annual per capita consumption may reach 400 kg. Brazil is responsible for approximately 10% of global production, placing the country behind only India, China, Philippines and Ecuador.

Typical symptoms of Sigatoka leaf spot caused by M. musicola.. A- Samples of banana cultivars collected in Distrito federal, Brazil; B- reduction of functional leaf area; C- necrotic lesions surrounded by yellow halos; D- fruiting bodies within the centre of a lesion.

Typical symptoms of Sigatoka leaf spot caused by M. musicola.. A- Samples of banana cultivars collected in Distrito federal, Brazil; B- reduction of functional leaf area; C- necrotic lesions surrounded by yellow halos; D- fruiting bodies within the centre of a lesion.

Of all the diseases affecting Musa production in Brazil, the largest impact is attributed to M. Fijiensis. Black Sigatoka can depreciate the physical properties of the fruit and cause premature ripening, as well as reduce functional leaf area, the consequence of which is reduced yield, with production losses of up to 100% in susceptible varieties such as M. Acuminate Cavendish Grande Naine (Musa cv. AAA) and Prata (Musa cv. AAB). Black Sigatoka was first reported in 1998 in the Amazon region, with the pathogen subsequently spreading across seven states in the North of the country and Mato Grosso. In 2005, the pathogen was also reported in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, Parana and Santa Catarina. Since then, the pathogen has not been officially reported in any new areas, although it remains a threat to the Northeast region of the country.

Although M. Fijiensis is regarded as the major constraint to banana production, M. Musicola is more widespread. Observed for the first time in Brazil in 1944 in the Amazon region, the pathogen now occurs in all growing regions, imposing substantial costs to affected growers. Here, losses of up to 50% of production are commonly reported as a result of Yellow Sigatoka. Genetic resistance is absent or partial in the majority of commercial banana cultivars, with the principal measures employed in integrated disease management based on the use of programmed applications of systemic or protectant fungicides.

This is an abstract of the full article published in: Outlooks on Pest Management – April 2015 issue.

The full text of this article is available to subscribers of Outlooks on Pest Management.
Non-subcribers may buy & download fulltext article.

Authors: Fabiane Silva Darosci Brito, Universidade de Brasilia, Bart Fraaije, Rothamsted Research and Robert N. G. Miller, Universidade de Brasilia – outline the importance of Sigatoka disease in Brazilian bananas and approaches towards its management

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Category: Agriculture

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